Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

8/19/20231 min read

orange heart decor
orange heart decor

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Pathophysiology and Disease Progression: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a multifactorial condition characterized by the progressive accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque within the coronary arteries. This process, known as atherosclerosis, results in the narrowing of these vital vessels, impairing blood flow to the myocardium and compromising its oxygen and nutrient supply.

Clinical Presentation and Symptoms: CAD often presents with angina pectoris, a discomfort or pressure sensation in the chest, typically precipitated by physical exertion or emotional stress. This symptom stems from myocardial ischemia due to inadequate coronary blood flow. Additionally, CAD may lead to silent myocardial ischemia, a condition where ischemic episodes occur without overt symptoms.

Diagnostic Approaches: Diagnostic evaluation of CAD entails a comprehensive assessment encompassing patient history, clinical presentation, and diagnostic tests. Non-invasive tests like stress electrocardiography, stress echocardiography, and nuclear imaging can provide valuable insights into myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography, an invasive procedure, offers precise visualization of coronary artery anatomy and the extent of stenosis.

Management Strategies: Management of CAD spans lifestyle interventions, pharmacotherapy, and invasive interventions. Lifestyle modifications encompass dietary adjustments, smoking cessation, weight management, and regular physical activity. Pharmacological interventions include antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering agents (statins), beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers. Invasive interventions encompass percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with balloon angioplasty and stent placement, while coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is employed in complex cases.